Abarbanel's Torah Commentary: Rationalism, Creativity and Systematic Analysis in the Pursuit of Truth
JLE Oct - Dec 2013
Session 1: Introduction
Rabbi Yishmael vs. Rabbi Akiva, based on sources in Professor A.J. Heschel’s work
LSJS April - May 2013
Sermon Notes 20/04/13 - Acharey & Kedoshim / Yom HaAtzmaut Shabbaton 5773
This week’s parashah starts with perhaps the most famous exhortation
in the Torah:
Speak to the entire congregation of Israel and say to them: be holy because I, the Lord your God, am holy. (VaYikra 19:2)
This raises the perennial issue of the nature of holiness. It is discussed by the mediaeval philosophers and has major ramifications for
the State of Israel. Rabbi Yehudah
HaLevi (Kuzari) understood that holiness is innate not just to God, but also to
people, places and even languages. He believed
the Jewish people and the Land of Israel to be intrinsically holy, in
comparison with other peoples and lands. In
contrast, the Rambam (Moreh Nevochim) believed that only God is inherently holy. For the Rambam, holiness is not innate, but
instrumental – the Land of Israel offers the best environment (determined by
climate, resources, location, etc.) for practising Judaism’s lofty spiritual
goals. Similarly, the history,
experience and temperament of the Jewish people best empower us to pursue the objectives
set out in the Torah.
The Kuzari's view has largely prevailed and informs much of modern
thought about the role of the Jewish people and the contemporary state. Yet it can be dangerous if misapplied – a view
that sets one people or place as holier and somehow better than others risks fostering
a destructive sense of superiority and triumphalism, and encouraging people to fight the wrong
battles with the wrong people.
I believe that despite its marginalisation in recent centuries, the
rationalist, instrumental perspective of the Rambam should be re-examined; it
has important lessons to teach a modern, fractious Jewish state.
An important 20th-century philosopher who donned the
Maimonidean mantle in this respect was Professor A.J. Heschel. In his monograph, ‘The Sabbath’ he notes that
Holiness of the land of Israel is derived from the holiness of the people of Israel. (The Sabbath)
For Heschel, the laws and ideals of land, and, by extension, the
state, must reflect the moral values and spiritual aspirations of the Jewish
people: an ethical monotheism that recognises the divine image present in
every member of society and strives to bring blessing upon them all. The land’s holiness is not innate – it is a
reflection of the moral conduct of its inhabitants.
In Heschel’s later book, ‘Israel: an Echo of Eternity’, written
following his visit to Israel just after the Six-Day War, he adapts the answer
to the Kotzker Rebbe's well-known question ‘Where is God?’ (Wherever you let Him
God is no less here than there. It is the sacred moment in which His presence is disclosed. We meet God in time rather than in space, in moments of faith rather than in a piece of space. (Israel: an Echo of Eternity)
But if God is mostly encountered in time, rather than space, what of a
Jewish homeland, now the State of Israel?
It must certainly provide the Jewish people with a haven from persecution,
as Herzl intended. It must be a place where
Jewish life, observance and culture can flourish and where true Jewish ambitions
can best be expressed, as articulated by Ahad HaAm and later, in a more
religious iteration, by Professor Eliezer Berkovits. It must be a place where foreign influences
can be cautiously filtered and incorporated where appropriate, rather than
being the prevailing Weltanschauung, as they are in the Diaspora. And it must encourage and implement Messianic
aspirations for the Jewish people and for the world.
True to his Maimonidean leanings, Heschel explains the creative
potential of the land for the Jewish people:
For the Jewish national movement, therefore, the land of Israel was not merely a place where, historically speaking, the Jews had once dwelt. It was the homeland with which an indestructible bond of national, physical, religious, and spiritual character had been preserved, and where the Jews had in essence remained—and were now once more in fact—a major element of the population. It is here where the great works of the Jewish people came into being: the Bible, the Mishnah, the Palestinian Talmud, the Midrashim, the Shulhan Arukh, Lurianic mysticism. No other people has created original literary works of decisive significance in the land of Israel. The words, the songs, the chants of Jewish liturgy, which have shaped the life of prayer in both Judaism and Christianity, were born in the Holy Land.... It is not only memory, our past that ties us to the land; it is our hope, our future. (Israel: an Echo of Eternity)
Heschel also coined a beautiful phrase to describe the role and
aspirations of the State of Israel – ‘a rendezvous with history’, one which
must be constantly renewed and reinvigorated.
In a section of ‘Israel: an Echo of Eternity’ by that name, he demands a
The major weakness was to take the State of Israel for granted, to cease to wonder at the marvel of its sheer being. Even the extraordinary tends to be forgotten. Familiarity destroys the sense of surprise. We have been beset by a case of spiritual amnesia. We forgot the daring, the labor, the courage of the seers of the State of Israel, of the builders and pioneers. We forgot the pain, the suffering, the hurt, the anguish, and the anxiety which preceded the rise of the state. We forgot the awful pangs of birth, the holiness of the deed, the dedication of the spirit. We saw the Hilton and forgot Tel Hai.
The land rebuilt became a matter of routine, the land as a home was taken for granted.
The younger generation seeing the state functioning normally has the impression that this has been the case all along. They have no notion of the distress and strain, of the longing and dreaming of generations. The miracle of Israel became a state like all states, with neither mystery nor sacrifice permeating it. Habit is our downfall, a defeat of the spirit. Living by habit is the destruction of creativity. (ibid.)
My generation (I was born a few months after the Six-Day War) have no recollection of a time when one couldn’t
hop on a plane and visit Israel; when we visit Jerusalem, we need a tour guide, rather than a military vehicle,
to point out the Israeli-Jordanian pre-’67 battle-lines.
Yom HaAtzmaut is a great opportunity to consider the real potential of
the Jewish state and to ensure that we never take its existence – so long a
distant hope – for granted. Nor for that
matter, our responsibility to build a land and a state that truly reflects the values
of the Torah and the Jewish people – a life of holiness and a way of being that
elevates us and all of humanity.
When Less is MoreIf you'd wanted to hear my sermon, you'd have come to Shul, but... Actually, I didn't give a sermon this week as my community had the privilege of hosting Professor Elliott Malamet from Toronto, who delivered three fascinating and thought-provoking talks - see here for details. Yet the story of Bilam's donkey, which appears in this week's Torah reading, offers a further opportunity to explore the Rambam's approach to certain challenging biblical texts. While it is almost universally assumed that the narrative describes an actual, physical event, the Rambam (Maimonides) asserts that it was a prophetic vision - i.e. it happened only in Bilam's mind but was not observable by an outsider. As he explains: The entire [episode] of Bilaam's journey and the words of the donkey - all were a prophetic vision. (Moreh Nevochim 2:42) Indeed, for the Rambam, 'everywhere that the appearance or speech of an angel is mentioned, it is always a prophetic vision of dream, whether this is explicitly mentioned or not... Know this and understand it extremely well'. (ibid.) So, frustratingly for literalists, the Rambam contends that there wasn't a talking donkey in any 'real' sense. However, this appears to be contradicted by an explicit Mishnah, which sites the 'mouth of the donkey' within a group of specially-created items: Ten things were created at twilight on the [first] Friday evening... the mouth of the donkey.. (Mishnah, Avot 5:6) Since the other items in the list - including the staff of Moshe, the manna and tablets of the covenant - were clearly real, physical entities, this strongly suggest that the 'mouth of the donkey' - surely a euphemism for it actually speaking - was also 'real'. The Chief Rabbi once suggested to me that the Rambam meant that Bilam's journey actually took place; when Bilam hit the donkey, he heard its braying as human speech. It may be that the capacity for this to happen at the right moment in history was created on the first Friday afternoon in history, allowing the Rambam's non-literalist approach to square with the Mishnah. Rambam's certainty that human beings cannot detect angels, and consequently, the 'talking donkey' must have been a vision, is consonant with his insistence that nothing in existence other than God is inherently holy. It also fits with what I would term his 'rational minimalism', the contention that God is as economic as possible when He must interfere with the natural running of the world, something I've mentioned before here. In practice, this means that God uses the minimum intervention to achieve his desired outcome - in this case, since a vision could suffice to rebuke Bilam and demonstrate that he was merely a pawn in the hand of the divine, no more miraculous event needed, or indeed, could have, occurred. This approach remains unpopular in a Jewish world that often assumes that 'more is more' both in practice and theory. I've noticed that many speakers (and, it would seem, their audiences), assume that if two stories can illustrate a point then eight must do so better. From this perspective, when dealing with theological matters, the more overt the divine intervention, the greater the God. The Rambam's approach challenges the validity of this view. For him, only a God who can change the course of history with the slightest intervention is truly omnipotent - 'less is more'.
Of Darkness, Rationalism and Jewish Leadership
If you’d wanted to hear my sermon, you’d have come to Shul, but...
The last three plagues are described in the first part of this week’s parashah. A controversial approach to the ninth plague – darkness (Shemot 10:21-23) – appears in the Torah Temimah. This work, published in 1902 by Rabbi Baruch ha-Levi Epstein of Pinsk, comments on selected midrashim verse by verse. Analysing a midrash which claims that the darkness was ‘as thick as a coin’ (see Yalkut Shimoni to Tehillim 105), Rabbi Epstein says the following:
Were I not afraid to produce an entirely novel approach, I would have said that the darkness was not in the air, but in the Egyptians’ eyes – a kind of cataract obscuring their pupils. The rabbis point out that this cataract was tangible and was ‘as thick as a coin’. (Torah Temimah to Shemot 10:21, paraphrased, Hebrew text below)
Whenever a rabbi introduces an observation with the phrase ‘were I not afraid… I would have said’, he knows that what he is about to write will is contentious. Indeed, some critics viewed Rabbi Epstein’s understanding as an unacceptable deviation from ‘normative’ interpretation; to this day, some ultra-conservative groups treat the entire work with suspicion.
In fact, Rabbi Epstein was merely following a well-trodden, but unpopular, mode of interpretation, one based firmly in the writings of the Rambam:
It is incumbent upon us to combine Torah and rationalism, to explain matters as naturalistically as possible. Only when something is absolutely inexplicable by natural means, should one say that it is a ‘miracle’. (Rambam, Epistle on the Resuscitation of the Dead, section 2, paraphrased, Hebrew text below)
The Rambam means that one should only resort to a complex – supernatural explanation – of any event described in the Torah – when all simpler – read: naturalistic – explanations have been exhausted. I would term this a Maimonidean version of Occam’s Razor.
While of course, the opportune appearance of targeted cataracts can only be attributed to divine intervention, Rabbi Epstein’s explanation minimises the miraculous nature of the plague of darkness by rationalising it as far as possible. Apparently, this was something that Rabbi Epstein’s detractors found unforgivable.
This long-forgotten controversy highlights the tension between rationalistic and super-rationalistic approaches to Judaism that have existed since long before the publication of the Torah Temimah. It lies at the heart of the radically different world-views of Rabbi Yehudah ha-Levi’s Kuzari and the Rambam’s Moreh Nevochim – Guide for the Perplexed, and continues today.
Actually, it would be more accurate to say that the rationalistic approach to Torah interpretation and Jewish thought is in retreat and has gradually ceded to the super-or even anti-rationalism which now characterises much of Orthodox society. This is evident in every area of Jewish life: the content of popular works; the adulation of leaders; the immense growth in segulot – spiritual remedies of the ‘give your money to this cause and you’ll find a spouse, have a baby, be cured of an illness, or make a living’ variety.
There are too many negative spinoffs of this phenomenon to consider in a short space. They include the unwillingness to contextualise talmudic texts describing the observable universe and the subsequent rejection of the need to reconcile Torah with scientific discoveries, a naive, romanticised understanding of world history and a hagiographic approach to the lives of Jewish leaders. All of these and others make some prevalent forms of Jewish life deeply unattractive to thinking people and mean that there is little opportunity for those already within the system to find answers to genuine questions.
But a particularly worrying consequence of the super-rationalistic approach is the manner in which leaders of some parts of the community are appointed and the uncritical way in which their performance is evaluated. Sadly, rabbinical leaders are not always chosen because they have the appropriate qualifications, can identify with the lives and concerns of their charges and will fight for them. And when they remain silent in the face of injustice, as has happened too often in recent times, their disciples are willing to attribute this to the rabbis’ higher knowledge or holiness rather than to a failure of leadership. And while, of course, every system of governance can be abused by its leaders, Jewish leadership should be a beacon of good sense, fairness and transparency, not words one would immediately associate with some contemporary leaders.
A return to rationalism, a neglected, but bona fide Jewish alternative, is sorely needed, especially in Israel. It’s not the answer to every problem the Jewish world faces, but it will go a long way to making authentic Orthodox Judaism more attractive to intelligent people, better able to face the social and intellectual challenges of living a religious life in a modern world, and, perhaps most importantly, more capable of producing leaders who will actually lead our communities.
תורה תמימה, שמות י:כא
ומבואר במדרשים שהחושך כעובי דינר, וכלל הענין מופלא מאד, דמה שייך להתפיס שיעור ממשות בחושך, וגם צ"ע דלפי פירש"י שהיה כל משך המטל"ע כולו לילה ולא היה יום כלל א"כ נשתנו סדרי בראשית , וזה קשה מאד שהרי הקב"ה הבטיח לנח ולבניו ויום ולילה לא ישבותו.
ולולא מסתפינא להמציא דבר חדש מאד ה"א דענין החושך היה לא באויר רק בעיני האנשים, והיינו שהיה מתוח תבלול על אישון העין, ואמרו חכמים שאותו התבלול היה נמוש ביד וגם היה כעובי דינר, וניחא הכל.
רמב"ם, מאמר תחית המתים, קטע ב'
ואנחנו נשתדל לקבץ בין התורה והמשכל וננהיג הדברים על סדר טבעי אפשר בכל זה, אלא מה שהתבאר בו שהוא מופת ולא יתכן לפרשו כלל אז נצטרך לומר שהוא מופת.